Brazil occupies a unique position among the major greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting countries due to its low per-capita energy-related GHG emissions (2.4 tons CO2 in 2014), attributable to Brazil’s abundant clean energy sources. The sources of major emissions have historically been concentrated in agriculture, forestry, and other land use (AFOLU), and are related mostly to deforestation, crop growing and livestock. Recently, deforestation in Brazil has slowed considerably, to the point where forestry has ceased to be the major source of emissions. Thanks to reduced deforestation, Brazil has reduced its overall GHG emissions by 41% from 2005 to 2012, and its total GHG emissions per capita decreased from a high in 2004 of 14.4 tCO2e to an estimated 6.5 tCO2e in 2012.
Governmental efforts have succeeded in bringing Amazon deforestation down to 0.7 Mha in 2010 and 0.5 Mha in 2014. On the other hand, emissions related to fossil fuel combustion for energy production and consumption have continued to increase significantly, in parallel with the growth of the Brazilian economy. Fossil fuel combustion for energy production and consumption have reached nearly the same level of those from agriculture plus cattle breeding, and due to this fast growth rate are expected to become the dominant source of GHG emissions over the next decade.
This report outlines the pathways to Deep Decarbonization in Brazil.