5. Non-governmental and civil society organisations
In addition to the governmental and non-governmental organisations described above, a large number of non-governmental and civil society organisations are active in the extractives sector, both at a local and international level. These organisations play an important role in holding government and industry to account and in raising issues relating to the sector that concern citizens and civic society.
At an international level, organisations such as the World Petroleum Council (WPC) work to further management of the industry and its social, economic and environment impact or address specific sectoral issues. Publish What You Pay (PWYP), for example, promotes transparency and supports citizens in voicing their views on whether and how resources are extracted and how revenues are spent.
Other CSOs and NGOs have adopted mandates that address specific issues within the extractives sector. For example, Pact Mine to Market (M2M) works primarily on issues such as health and safety, human rights, traceability and transparency, economic empowerment, mercury abatement and child labour. Women in Mining (WIM) is dedicated to advancing the training and development of women in the mining and minerals sectors, and giving women a ‘voice’ in the industry. Other CSOs and NGOs have specific regional mandates or areas of responsibility.
The global oil and gas industry association for environmental and social issues (IPIECA) is a petroleum industry association that distinguishes itself by sharing and promoting good practice and knowledge, focusing specifically on social and environmental issues. A non-profit organisation, IPIECA was formed in 1974 further to the launch of the United Nations Environment Programme, and the organisation states that its role is to act as the petroleum industry’s premier channel of communications with the United Nations as a whole. Its membership, like that of IOGP, accounts for more than half of the world’s global oil production with its membership expanding to the downstream sector as well. The IPIECA, by providing a forum encouraging industry to work together towards the sustainable development agenda – climate and energy, environmental and social issues, facilitates continuous improvement in industry performance.
The Natural Resource Governance Institute (NRGI) was formed by the merger of Revenue Watch International and the Resource Governance Charter. It currently works in 12 priority countries, eight limited and 46 other countries across the globe, helping citizens to realise the benefits of their hydrocarbon and mineral deposits by monitoring the management of the extraction of these resources. Further, NRGI partners with locally-based public and private sector organisations which share the agenda and objectives of the NRGI.
The Natural Resource Charter provides 12 steps (known as precepts) to guide actors along the extractive industry decision chain. The steps are divided into three categories:
- Domestic foundation for resource governance;
- The chain of economic decisions required to mange resources prosperity; and
- The international foundations of good governance.
12 Steps of the NRGI Charter
In the mining industry, they provide working tools and international benchmarks to perform quantitative and quantitative analysis of the industry. Their working tools include The Natural Resource Charter Benchmarking Framework, a tool for benchmarking a country’s management of oil, gas and minerals against global best practices. This was created in response to government and civil society demand for a practical way to measure resource governance; it is the product of five years of expert input and testing in more than 15 country projects.
The NRGI also promotes the Resource Governance Index (RGI), which measures the quality of governance in the oil, gas and mining sectors of 58 countries, relying on a detailed questionnaire completed by researchers with expertise in the extractive industries. The index assesses the quality of four key governance components: institutional and legal setting; reporting practices; safeguards and quality controls; and enabling environment. It also includes information on three special mechanisms used commonly to govern oil, gas and minerals, state-owned companies, natural resource funds and subnational revenue transfers.